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Services and diagnostic tests



  • Electrocardiogram
  • 24 hour Holter monitoring
  • 24-hour blood pressure monitoring
  • Stress test-Exercise ECG
  • Echocardiography (echo-doppler)
  • Stress echocardiography (stress echo)
  • Coronary angiography
  • Coronary computed tomography angiography
  • Carotid Ultrasound
Electrocardiogram

The electrocardiogram is a valuable tool for a cardiologist. It provides information about the electrical activity of the heart, about the underlying rhythm and frequency and it is able to detect arrhythmias. An electrocardiogram may also suggest underlying functional or structural abnormalities of the myocardium and it is now considered to be an essential part of a proper cardiovascular examination.

24 hour Holter monitoring

People often complain for palpitations, which usually is attributed to some form of arrhythmia. It may be caused by stress, overconsumption of coffee or alcohol, fatigue or rarely an underlying heart condition. In order to accurately record and document those arrhythmias we use a simple portable machine which records the cardiac activity for 24 hours. This recording may be performed normally while the patients are doing their regular daily activities. In this way, we are able to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and decide if any therapeutic interventions are required.

24-hour blood pressure monitoring

Blood pressure recording has several fluctuations during the day. Apart from that, patients sometimes exhibit elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting due to stress (“white coat hypertension”).  In order to accurately diagnose arterial hypertension and identify its variations during a 24 hour day we use a simple portable machine, which is programmed to measure it in short and regular intervals. In fact, the information given are very important in the selection of optimal therapeutic intervention.

Stress test-Exercise ECG

The stress test under continuous electrocardiographic monitoring is one of the safest and most established methods of identifying cardiovascular conditions. Due to the accumulation of large amount of scientific data from its longstanding use in the field of cardiology we are now able to gather much useful information. The test should be performed in carefully selected patients under the continuous supervision of a cardiologist. The patient is performing physical exercise usually on a treadmill in a predetermined specific protocol with constant electrocardiographic monitoring. It is important to evaluate how physical exercise affects several parameters (ECG, blood pressure, arrhythmias, and heart rate). The interpretation of an ECG stress test by an experienced cardiologist can provide valuable information and help diagnose coronary artery disease.

Echocardiography (echo-doppler)

This examination is currently the most valuable diagnostic tool for a cardiologist in order to observe and monitor the function of the heart in a way that is painless and safe for the patient. The technological improvement is now in place with the implementation of ultrasound physics to clearly visualize the myocardium, the aorta, the valves and the pericardium.

Stress echocardiography (stress echo)

It is very important to be able to visualize with the use of ultrasound how the heart works in conditions of provoked stress. The suggested method to increase the workload of the heart is physical stress, either walking on a treadmill or using a specially designed static bicycle. In carefully selected individuals, particularly those who are unable to perform physical stress, this examination can be performed with the use of certain intravenously administered medications, usually dobutamine.

Coronary angiography

Coronary angiography is an invasive procedure, which is performed for diagnostic reasons, but it also permits to proceed with therapeutic interventions. It is performed only in adequately equipped laboratories with specially trained personnel. The invasive cardiologist advances a catheter to the heart through a peripheral artery and with the use of a contrast dye the coronary arteries are clearly visualized. If this diagnostic procedure identifies a significant intraluminal stenosis in an artery then it is possible to proceed with the placement of a stent in order to restore blood supply to the heart. This procedure should never be performed in asymptomatic patients, but only in carefully selected individuals.

Coronary computed tomography angiography

Coronary computed tomography angiography is a non-invasive method for imaging of coronary arteries. It should be addressed to carefully selected individuals, who will mostly benefit by this diagnostic imaging modality. It is very useful for the exclusion of underlying coronary artery disease in young individuals who present with chest pain syndrome. It may give false positive results, particularly in elderly individuals with heavily calcified coronary arteries. With the improvement of technology it is expected in the future that the radiation dose will gradually be reduced.

Carotid Ultrasound

The carotid arteries are located on each side of the neck and are responsible for blood supply to the brain. Carotid ultrasound is a simple and painless diagnostic procedure, which is used in order to ex-amine the structure and function of those arteries.

The assessment of the composition of the arterial wall and also the presence of narrowing are useful for determination of the risk of stroke. Depending on the findings of this examination the physician will decide if a therapeutic intervention, either con-servative or surgical, is required in order to reduce the risk of stroke.

This diagnostic examination should be performed in patients with established cardiovascular disease and also in individuals with predisposition for atheromatosis (family history of heart disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and smoking). It is also important to be performed in individuals with repetitive fainting attacks, transient loss of vision and headaches


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Είναι αδύνατο να ξέρει την ιατρική, αυτός που δεν ξέρει ακριβώς τι είναι ο άνθρωπος. ΙΠΠΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ




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It is impossible for one to know medicine if he doesn’t know what a human being is. HIPPOCRATES






Copyright by Dr Yiannis Panayiotides 2018. All rights reserved.



Copyright by Dr Yiannis Panayiotides 2018. All rights reserved.